Thursday, February 14, 2008



Instructional Writing
Where Have You Encountered Process?

§Cooking—recipes are written in step-by-step processes.
§Whenever you buy a new product such as electronics or furniture, you are given an instruction manual on how to work the product or put it together.
§In your classes—you are taught usually using step-by-step guidelines.
§Getting directions to a house or other place.
Your Writing Objective

§Write instructions that explain how to do something.
§Topics are on p. 198 in Writing Assignment 1.
§You will be the expert on this topic, so choose something you know how to do really well.
§Your objective is to get readers to complete your process successfully using only what you have written.

§It is very important to consider your “intended audience”—who you are writing the instructions for.
§Process is usually written in second person
§If your audience knows little or nothing about your topic, you must explain everything in very basic terms.
EX: If you are explaining how to set up a spreadsheet to an audience that knows nothing about a computer, you will need to include fundamentals such as how to turn it on, get into the program, and more

§If your audience is already knowledgeable about topic, your explanations can be at a more advanced level.
§EX: If you are telling your audience how to set up a spreadsheet, you can begin already in the program because you can assume that your audience already knew how to turn the computer on and get into the appropriate program.
Prewriting for Process

§Listing works well
§Begin by listing all the steps you can think of that it takes to complete the process.
§Do not worry about the order of the steps.
§Spend at least ten minutes of listing.
§When you are finished with your list, it should be at least half a page long.
§If you have at least half a page of steps, you have a good process topic.
§If you have less than half a page, choose a different topic, or try freewriting.

Putting your list in step by step order

§Natural order for process is one step at a time, from start to finish.
§Very similar to chronological order.
§Before moving to drafting, look again at your list, and make sure all the steps are in the most logical order.
§Cross out unnecessary steps, and draw arrows to where steps should be moved
Look at List—Which Steps are Out of Order?

How to paint a room
vNeed both roller and brush
vBuy the right kind of paint
vApply the paint evenly
vProtect furniture and carpet
vWear old clothes
vDo ceiling first
vPaint edges and corners with a brush
vBrushing back and forth eliminates brush marks
vPut masking tape around edges and baseboard
vPaint one section at a time
vWash brush and roller afterward—soap and water
vImportance of good ventilation
vStir paint thoroughly before you begin
vUse even brush strokes
vUse long roller strokes
vLatex paint is easier to use
Prewriting—Giving Instructions Orally

§If possible, try giving instruction orally to see how successfully someone can complete the process using your instructions
Practice With Oral Instructions

§Divide into groups
§Each group will select a topic from below—no repeat topics
§Each group will write instructions on how to complete process.
§Each group will then instruct the class to do process using only what you have written.
Oral Process Topics

§How to do an exercise such as jumping jacks sit-ups, or push-ups
§How to do a simple line or square dance
§A first-aid skill such as how to bandage an injured ankle
§How to make a boat, an airplane or something else out of paper
§How to write a good resume or short business letter.
§A relaxation technique, a self-defense technique, or some other useful technique
§A communication technique such as how to be assertive in a specific situation or how to resolve a specific conflict
§What to do in case of an earthquake or a disaster drill
Follow-up Questions

§What parts of the instructions were easy to follow?
§What parts of the instructions, if any, were not clear enough?
§What information had to be added so that people could follow the instructions?
§What problems did you experience while giving instructions?
§What have you learned about giving instructions?

Sunday, February 3, 2008

Organization of Narration

Organization of Narration
After Outlining
l After you have outlined the details you will include in your paragraph, you are ready to draft.
l Begin by writing the story you want to tell, keeping everything in chronological order
l Refer to your freewriting.
l Include only relevant details—those that directly relate to your topic sentence
l Include your feelings at significant places in the story
Making Your Story Interesting
l Include significant details that create a clear picture of the events.
l Leave out unimportant details that may bore your readers.
l Ask yourself which things a reader would really like to know about
l Use vivid, accurate words to describe people and things.
l Be specific, not vague
Ex: There were rocks in the trail.
Huge boulders blocked our path while we hiked up the steep mountain trail.
Subjects and Verbs
l A sentence must have a subject and a verb for it to be complete.
l The subject is who or what the sentence speaks about.
l The verb is what the subject does
Identifying the Subject
l Ask who or what the sentence is about.
The children laughed. (Who is the sentence about? Children)
Several branches fell (What is the sentence about? Branches)
Most students passed the test (Who is the sentence about? Students)
Identifying the verb
l Ask what the sentence says about the subject
l The children laughed. What does the sentence say about the children? They laughed.
l Several branches fell.
l Most students passed the test.
l That man is a hero.
Compound Sentences
l We have just looked at simple sentences—sentences with one subject and verb.
l Compound sentences are sentences with two subjects and verbs.
l Compound sentences have two independent clauses (SVs) joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction
Coordinating Conjunctions
l For--because
l And—in addition, also
l Nor—neither, not one and not the other
l But—in contrast, on the other hand
l Or--alternatively
l Yet—but (yet is a little more formal)
l So—as a result, for that reason
Example Compound Sentences
l Antonio loves soccer, but Marissa prefers scuba diving.
l Jaime has to complete his project, or he will not be ready for his presentation.
l Tricia was thirsty after the long hike, so she drank a whole quart of lemonade.
l Our whole family went horseback riding, and our guide got lost.
Combine Two Independent Clauses into ONE Compound Sentence
l The cars crept along slowly.
l Visibility was poor in the heavy fog.
Combined sentence: The cars crept along slowly, for visibility was poor in the heavy fog.
Combine sentences on 116-117
Prepositional Phrases
l Give location, direction, time, or additional information about a sentence.
l Begin with a preposition (list on p. 408) and end with a noun (person, place, thing or idea)
l Can appear anywhere in a sentence
l Can separate the subject from the verb
l The subject of a sentence will never be in a prepositional phrase
Sentences with Prepositional Phrases
Under my pillow, I found a quarter left by the tooth fairy.
One of the yellow lights at the school crossing began flashing
The comics page of the newspaper has disappeared.
During a rainstorm, I sat in my car reading magazines.
Go through sentences p. 410

Class Schedule

Grossmont College English 98

Class Schedule
*All scheduled tasks may change according to time or other constraints

Week 1

1/29: Introduction, go over syllabus, interview each other; in-class writing, discuss writing process; introduction to narration, prewriting for narration
HW: Read Skills 3-34, 203-205, 451-454; complete review test p. 453-4 choose topic for narration (topics p. 215, 217—writing assignment 1 or 2) and complete 10-minute freewrite

1/31: Discuss writing process, subject-verb identification, parts of speech
HW: Read Skills 35-45; complete activities 10-14 Read 116-117; choose details for narration paragraph, and create outline.

Journal Assignment: Write a page about what your goals are for this class. What do you plan to achieve, and how will what you achieve affect your future as a college student?

Week 2

2/5: Quiz; organization of narration, details, topic sentences, compound sentences
HW: Read Skills 46-63, 414-429, 166-175; draft narration paragraph

2/7: Workshop, discuss topic sentences for narration, create topic sentences in pairs; discuss fragments
HW: Read Skills 64-82, 192-206; complete activities 11-15 p 66-75; revise narration paragraph
Journal Assignment: Write a page detailing your proudest victories and/or your greatest strengths. INCLUDE AT LEAST FIVE COMPOUND SENTENCES.

Week 3

2/12: NARRATION PARAGRAPHS DUE; introduce process
HW: Read Skills 83-94, complete activities 1-3 p. 88-94 (where it states to underline, list the answers on a piece of paper ); read 250-263 choose topic for process paragraph and complete listing prewriting activity

2/14: Quiz, go over activities
HW: Read Skills 95-104, complete activities 4-10 p. 95-101 read 117-119; draft process paragraph
Journal Assignment: Interview the most positive person you know, and write a page describing this person’s “secret” for being so positive. Include at least three complex sentences.

Week 4

2/19: Workshop, discuss complex sentences
HW: Read Skills 106-115; complete activities 1-4, read 430-444, 265-275; revise process paragraph

2/21: PROCESS PARAGRAPHS DUE, Quiz, discuss description (topics p. 282-283, writing assignment 5 or 6), run-ons
HW: choose topic for description and complete 10-minute freewrite; read Skills 116-122, complete activities 7-10, read Skills 445-462, 276-283
Journal Assignment: Interview an instructor. Ask the instructor five questions related to the class he/she teaches, and ask five personal questions such as hobbies, goals, etc.

Week 5

2/26: Continue description, go over activities, discuss verbs
HW: choose details for description and create rough draft; read Skills 123-136, complete review tests 1-5; read Skills 483-487

2/28: Quiz, workshop; continue description; discuss adjectives and adverbs
HW: Revise description paragraph. Read Skills 137-147; complete activities 1-5; read Skills 463-469, 221-233
Journal Assignment: Visualize your greatest goals and dreams in college and in life, and write a page describing that vision.

Week 6

3/4: DESCRIPTION PARAGRAPHS DUE; begin comparison contrast (topics p. 233), discuss subject-verb agreement
HW: Choose topic for comparison contrast and do dividing and listing activity; Read Skills 148-159 complete activities 6-9; read 234-241, 470-476
3/6: Quiz, Continue comparison contrast, discuss organization; review for mid term
HW: Create outline for comparison contrast. Read Skills 160-163; complete activities 111-12; read Skills 477-482

Journal Assignment: Read Skills 701-710, complete Comprehension 1-10, Critical 1, 2
Week 7

3/11: MID TERM EXAM, Continue comparison contrast, workshop outline
HW: Draft comparison contrast. Read Skills 488-494, complete Review Tests 1,2

3/13: Quiz; workshop
HW: Revise comparison/contrast, Read Skills 176-183, 501-509; complete Activities 1-3

NO Journal Assignment

Week 8
Spring Break

3/26: COMPARISON CONTRAST PARAGRAPHS DUE; begin Exemplification (topics p. 185 writing assignment 2)
HW: Choose topic for exemplification and complete listing prewriting activity, Read Skills 184-190

3/28: Quiz, continue Exemplification
HW: Draft exemplification; read Skills 510-512, complete activities 1-2

Journal Assignment: Read Skills 732-739; answer comprehension questions 1-10, Critical Reading and discussion questions 1-2

Week 9

4/1: Workshop, discuss numbers and abbreviations
HW: Revise exemplification, Read Skills 514-530; complete activities 1-3

4/3: Quiz, workshop, discuss quotation marks
HW: Revise exemplification; read Skills 531-539; complete activities 1-6, Read Skills

Journal Assignment: Read Skills 628-630, complete Comprehension 1-10 and Critical Reading and Discussion 1, 3
Week 10

4/8: EXEMPLIFICATION PARAGRAPHS DUE, begin cause and effect, discuss commas
HW: Read Skills 207-219, 540-544; choose topic for cause and effect paragraph and create clustering prewriting activity with topic as both cause and effect

4/10: Quiz, continue cause and effect--outlining, discuss punctuation
HW: Draft Cause and Effect, Read Skills 565-574; complete Review Tests 1-2
Journal Assignment: Read Skills 662-671 Complete Comprehension 1-10, Critical Reading and Discussion 1-2

Week 11

4/15: Workshop, discuss homonyms
HW: Revise cause and effect, Read Skills 327-340, 575-580, complete Review Test

4/17: Workshop, Quiz, discuss effective word choice
HW: Revise cause and effect
Journal Assignment: Read Skills 634-638; answer comprehension questions 1-10, Critical Reading and Discussion questions 1, 3.
Week 12

4/22: Workshop, begin argument
HW: Choose topic for argument, and do two prewriting activities of your choice; read Skills 341-354; complete mastery tests 1-4 p. 595-598

4/24: CAUSE AND EFFECT PARAGRAPHS DUE, Continue argument
HW: Choose three supporting points for argument; complete mastery tests 5-8 p. 599-602
Journal Assignment: Read Skills 686-689, Complete Comprehension 1-10, Critical Reading and Discussion 1, 4

Week 13
4/29: Continue argument
HW: Create outline of argument essay, Complete Editing Tests 1-4 603-607

5/1: Workshop outline, Quiz
HW: Draft argument essay
Journal Assignment: Read Skills 693-696; complete Comprehension questions 1-10, discussion questions 1-8.

Week 14

5/6: Workshop, discuss CAT
HW: Revise Argument, complete editing tests 5-10, p. 608-613

HW: Complete editing tests 11-12 p. 614-615

Journal Assignment: Read Skills 740-742, Complete Comprehension 1-10, Discussion 1, 5, 6

Week 15

5/13: Workshop
HW: Revise argument essay

5/15: JOURNALS DUE, workshop
HW: Proofread and edit argument essay

No Journal Assignment

Week 16

5/20: Final Argument Essays Due
HW: Review for final

5/22: Review for final

Final Exam: Tuesday, May 27, 7:30-9:30 a.m.

Quick Reference Guide

Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers
Capital letters
Numbers and Abbreviations
Quotation Marks
Other Punctuation
Homonyms/ Commonly Confused Words
Slang, Cliché, Pretentions Words

Course Requirements

Grossmont College English 98
Spring 2008
Section: 4751
Class Time: T Th 7:30-9:20 a.m.
Class Room: CTC2
Instructor: Swan Ashby
Instructor email:
Instructor mailbox:
Campus Business Services 100 Bldg

Required Text: Langan, John. English Skills with Readings. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2006.

Required Materials:
Collegiate dictionary and thesaurus
Writing journal college ruled minimum size 8X11
Floppy disk or flash drive
Access to a computer or word processor

Course Description: English 98 is an introduction to the writing process. You will study grammar, punctuation, and standard written English usage. You will learn basic sentence patterns to compose paragraphs and one multi-paragraph essay.

In this class, you will:

· Learn, recognize and practice the parts of speech
· Recognize and spell basic and challenging words
· Recognize and correct sentences containing errors in basic English grammar
· Write coherent (logical) simple, compound and complex sentences
· Recognize and correct fragments, fused sentences (run-on) and comma splices
· Recognize and correct errors in basic punctuation
· Relate the elements of grammar and punctuation review to the editing of written work
· Write simple paragraphs which include a topic sentence, organization, support, and conclusion.
· Learn and demonstrate the phases in the writing process
· Learn skills to write in an in-class setting
· Discuss and analyze selected reading assignments

Course Requirements:

Six 200-word paragraphs
One 750 word, multi-paragraph essay
One writing journal
Various homework assignments based on reading or writing exercises
Various quizzes on readings, grammar, writing process, etc.
One Mid Term exam
One Final Exam
Class Participation
Grade Break Down:

Paragraphs……………….30% (5% each)
Final Essay………………15%
Writing Journal………….10%
Mid Term………………….5%
Final Exam………………..5%
Essay Exam………………10%
Class Participation…………5%
Course Policies:
Attendance and participation are mandatory and create an optimum learning environment. If you accumulate more than three unexcused absences, or if your absences are so excessive that I think you won’t be able to pass the course with a ‘C’ or better, I have the option to drop you from the class. If you arrive significantly late or leave early, you disrupt the class, and you will receive partial or full absences. If you miss a class, it is your responsibility to find out what was covered the missed class meeting. Often, class meeting topics are on the class schedule, but you should exchange contact information with at least two classmates in order to ensure that you do not miss any work or pertinent material. If you know ahead of time that you will not be in class, notify me by phone or email—the notification does not mean that you will be allowed to make up work; it simply means that you are a conscientious student.

Late/Make up work:
Homework and essays are collected at the BEGINNING of each class session. Assignments turned in at the end of a class session will not be accepted. NO late work will be accepted without a documented emergency excuse. If you are absent the day an assignment is due, you must turn in the assignment to my mailbox the SAME day by the time the F Building closes. If you have a documented medical or other emergency excuse, I will accept the assignment when you return.

Journals are your responsibility to keep up with. Each journal assignment can be found on the class schedule. Each journal assignment should be minimum ONE FULL page. If you do not fill the ENTIRE page of the journal, or if your writing is very large, you will not get full credit for the journal entry. Journals will be collected TWICE per semester.

Paragraph Revision
You will have the opportunity to revise each essay/paragraph handed in. I will return the essay to you with a grade and comments that show where improvements could be made. If you are unsatisfied with your grade, you can revise the essay to try to improve your grade. Revisions will be due one week from the date the essay/paragraph is returned to you. Revision does not guarantee that your grade will improve. If you simply make changes where my comments are, you have not gone through the revision process, which involves making significant improvements, not simple editing. If your essay/paragraph does not meet the minimum page/length requirements, you will not be allowed to revise your essay, and you must accept the first grade given.

Class Policies:

No cell phone use or ringing. This includes text messaging. If I see you text messaging or looking at your phone or any other electronic device during class, I will confiscate the device until the end of class. If you do not surrender the device, I will ask you to leave. If I repeatedly have to ask you to leave electronic devices alone during class, I will suspend you from a class meeting.
Come to class prepared. Preparation means that you have completely read the reading assignment and are ready to participate in a discussion of the reading.
Work cooperatively with other students. You will be asked to read classmates’ writing. Your comments should be productive and relevant. Blatantly attacking a classmate’s essay is not productive and is not allowed.
Be an active student, and take responsibility for your own learning.
During discussion and group work, one person may speak at a time. You are expected to listen attentively and refrain from conversation while another person is speaking. Treat classmates and instructor with respect. If I repeatedly have to ask you to stop having side conversations during class time, I will ask you to leave for one or more class meetings.
You are expected to refrain from behavior that interferes with other students’ learning and to respect and obey standards of student conduct while in class. Offensive, homophobic, sexist, racist, or anti-religious language will not be tolerated.

Academic Integrity:
Cheating and plagiarism (using as one’s own ideas, writings or materials of someone else without acknowledgement or permission) can result in any one of a variety of sanctions. At minimum, if I think that you have intentionally plagiarized, you will receive a zero on the assignment in which the offense occurs. At maximum, you will get an ‘F’ in the course. Depending on the assignment, I may ask you to complete a similar assignment in my presence or ask to review your notes and/or sources of your information. I may also suspend you from the class meeting when the infraction occurs, as well as the next class meeting. For further clarification and information on these issues, please consult with me or contact the Assistant Dean of Student Affairs.

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities:
Students with disabilities who may need accommodations in this class are encouraged to notify me and contact Disabled Student Services and Programs (DSP&S) early in the semester so that reasonable accommodations may be implemented as soon as possible. Students may contact DSP&S in person in room 110 or by phone at (619) 644-7112 (voice) or (619) 644-7119 (TTY for deaf).

Supervised Tutoring Referral

Students are referred to enroll in the following supervised tutoring courses if the service indicated will assist them in achieving or reinforcing the learning objectives of this course:
IDS 198, Supervised Tutoring to receive general computer applications in the Tech Mall;

English 198W, Supervised Tutoring for assistance in the English Writing Center (Room 70-119); and/or

IDS 198T, Supervised Tutoring to receive one-on-one tutoring in academic subjects in the Tutoring Cener (Room 70-229, 644-7387).

To add any of these courses, students may obtain Add Codes at the Information/Registration Desk in the Tech Mall.

All Supervised Tutoring courses are non-credit, non-fee. However, when a student registers for a supervised tutoring course, and has no other classes, the student will be charged the usual health fee.


Writing that tells a story
Story Telling
l Your “story” will be an actual experience that you have had.
l You will include enough details so that readers can picture the events of your experience.
l Your story will be told in first person (I)
l Your story will be in chronological order.
l Minimum one paragraph, but feel free to write more.
Paragraph Requirements
l Typed
l 150 words
l Double spaced
l Times New Roman font (size 12)
l 1-inch margins
l Heading Required
Sample Heading
Joe Student
Instructor Ashby
English 98
January 31, 2008
The date is the date the assignment is due.
The heading is double spaced and flush with the left margin.
Prewriting for narration
You have already done a freewrite for your topic, but another prewriting activity that helps you discover more details is telling your story orally.
Oral Activity
l Choose two partners
l Tell your story to your partners, remembering everything that happened
l Include your feelings and reactions in the story.
l Each person tells story in about three minutes
l If you finish before three minutes, go back and add details
Following the stories, listeners respond
Listener Response Guide
What did you like best about the story?
Which details are the most interesting?
Are there any parts of the story that you would like to hear more about?
Are the story teller’s feeling expressed?
Is the entire sequence of events clear and easy to understand?
Organizing Freewriting
l Read through freewriting
l Determine if what you have written is the order in which it happened.
l Are some things out of their natural time order?
l If anything is out of order, underline or circle it.
l Then, you are ready to write a rough draft
Topic Sentences for Narration
l Main idea of your paragraph.
l Expresses the most important point of your paper.
l Appears at the beginning of the paragraph—often the first sentence.
l Sometimes at the end.
l Includes the experience and what is important about this experience
l Before writing a topic sentence, determine what the most important thing about your story is.
What to Emphasize in Your Topic Sentence
l Emotion—what you felt during the experience.
l Reveal details about the experience—grab readers’ attention
l Lesson learned—did you gain some insight or were you changed in some way from the experience?
Topic Sentences that Emphasize Feelings
l My first date was one of the most embarrassing experiences of my life.
l The most frightening experience I ever had was the time when I almost drown.
l I felt very proud and happy when I became an American citizen
Topic Sentences that Reveal Details
l I was so nervous about my first date that everything went wrong, from losing my wallet to falling on my face.
l As I sank below the surface of the water for the third time, I knew this was the worst (and maybe the last) experience of my life.
l My entire family watched as I took the citizenship oath, and I felt very proud and happy to become an American.
Topic Sentences that Emphasize a Lesson
l On my first date, I learned that if you’re afraid everything will go wrong, it will.
l Although almost drowning was a frightening experience, it helped me understand the meaning of the saying, “Live for the day.”
l Becoming an American citizen took a lot of hard work and determination, but it was worth the effort.